General Description

Anxiety is physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. (Sellgman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as fear apprehension, or worry. Anxiety is often accompanied by physical sensations such as heart palpitations, nausea, chest palm, shortness of breath, stomach aches, or headache. The cognitive component entails expectation of a diffuse and certain danger. Somatically the body prepares the organism to deal with threat (known as an emergency reaction) blood pressure and heart rate are increase, sweating is increased, blood flow to the major muscle groups in increased, and immune and digestive sistem functions are inhibited emotionally, anxiety causes a sense  of dread or panic and physically causes nausea, and chills. Behaviorally, both voluntary and involuntary behaviors may arise directed at escaping or avoiding the source of anxiety and offer maladaptive, being most extreme in anxiety disorders.

So in learning English process anxiety is very important because if the people  have of anxiety so they are will be spirit to study.

Research Question

  1. What the definitions of anxiety
  2. Two factor theory of anxiety
  3. The types of anxiety

Discussion

The definitions of anxiety

Anxiety is associated with feelings of uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension or worry (Scovel. 1978. p.134).

The are two point the definitions of anxiety

First trait anxiety is a more permanent predisposition to be anxious about things. And the second state anxiety is experienced in relation to some particular event or act. As we learned in the case of self esteem, then it is important in a classroom for a teacher to try to determine wheather a students  a student’s anxiety stems from a more global trait or wheather it comes from a particular situation at the moment.

Two factor theory of anxiety

Sigmund Freud recognized anxiety as a signal of danger and a cause of defensive anxious feelings through classical conditioning and traumatic experiences.

We feel temporarily relieved when we avoid/remove ourselves from situation which make us anxious/fearful, known as negative reinforcement, but this only increases anxious feelings the next time we are in the same position, and we will want to escape the situation again and therefore will not make any progress against the  anxiety, only intensifying the emotions or fear. Positive reinforcement whereby instead of removal from the anxiety causing situation (which acts as a reward something positive can be added to the situation instead to act as a reward, like actually facing your fear and coming away from it safely.

The types of anxiety

  1. Existential anxiety. Theologians like Paul Fillich and psychologists like Sigmund Freud have characterized anxiety as the reaction to what Hillich called the trauma of nonbeing.
  2. Test anxiety. Test anxiety is the uneasiness, apprehension or nervousness felt by students who have a fear of failing an exam. Students suffering from test anxiety may experience any of the following the association of grades with personal worth, embarrassment by a teacher, taking a class that is beyond their ability, fear of alienation from  of friend, lime pressure or feeling a loss of control.
  • Be well prepared for the test
  • Include as much self-testing in your review as possible
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle, get enough sleep, good nutrition, exercise, some personal “down” time, and a reasonable amount of social interaction.
  • As you anticipate the exam, think positively, e.g., “I can do OK on this exam. I’ve studied and I know my stuff”.
  • Engage in “thought stopping” if you find that you are worrying a lot, comparing yourself to your peers, or thinking about what others may say about your performance on this exam.
  • Before you go to bed  on the night before the exam, organize anything that you will need for the exam, pen, pencil, ruler, eraser, calculator, etc. double  check the time of the exam and the location
  • Set the alarm clock and then get a good night’s sleep before the exam
  • Get to the exam on time-not too late but not too early
  • Be cautions about talking to other students about the exam material just before going into the exam, especially if this will make you more anxious
  • Sit in a locations in the exam room where you will be distracted as little as possible.
  • As the papers are disturbed, calm yourself by taking some slow deep breaths
  • Make sure to carefully read any instructions on the exam
  • As you work on the exam, focus only on the exam, not on what other students are doing or on thinking about past exams or future goals.
  • If you feel very anxious in the exam, take a few minutes to calm yourself. Stretch your arms and legs and then relax them again. Do this a couple of times. Take a few slow deep breaths.
  1. Stranger anxiety. Stranger anxiety in younger people is not a phobia in the classic sense; rather it is a developmentally appropriate fear by young children of those who do not share a loved-one caretaker or parenting role.
  2. Anxiety in palliative care. Some research has strongly suggested that treating anxiety in concer patients improves their duality of life.

Conclusion

So the conclusion of the influence of anxiety in learning process, first the definitions of anxiety is associated with feelings and the are two point about anxiety that trait anxiety that is classical the second two theory of anxiety that is classical conditioning and traumatic experienced and the third about types of anxiety there are three point that  existential anxiety, test anxiety, stranger anxiety and anxiety in palliative care.

References

Zaid, D.H., Pardo, J.V. (1997) Emition, Olfaction, and the Human Amygdala; Amygdala Activation During Aversive Olfactory Stimulation, Proc Nat’l Acad Sci. 94(8): 4119-24.

Zaid, D.H., Hagen, M.C. & Pardo, J.V. (2002) Neural Correlates of Tasting Concentrated Quinine and Sugar Solutions” J. Neurophysical 87 (2): 1068.-75.

Enrst E. (2002). The Risk-Benefit Profile of Commonly used Herbal Therapies; Ginkgo, St. John’s Wort, Gingseng, Echinacea, Saw Palametto, and Kava” Anna Intern Med. 136 (1) : 42-53.

Rosen, J.B & Schulkin, J. (1998). From Normal Fear To Pathological Anxiety, Pscyhological Review. 105 (2) ; 325-350.

Seligman, M.E.P., Walker, E.F. & Rosenhan, D.L, (2001), Abnormal Psychology, 4th ed.). New York : W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Yaumi Muhammad. 2007. Psychology of Language. Makassar.

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