Definition of Environmental Waste
Based on Government Regulation Number Jo.PP 18/1999 85/1999, defined as residual waste or effluent from a business and / or human activity. Waste is waste of unused negative impact on the community if not managed properly. Industrial wastewater and domestic (domestic) if not managed properly will cause a negative impact on health.
The disease is closely related to the impact of waste water can be classified into non infectious and infectious disease. The disease is non infectious disease because of industry waste pollution containing heavy metals. Infectious disease is disease caused by pollution and household waste that contains microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
Prevention and control of wastewater impact on health can be done by identifying the type of waste, find out the impact on health, and how it’s processing. At present, the industry is growing rapidly. It may cause environmental degradation. The environmental degradation caused by uncontrolled disposal of waste and gas emissions from industry activity. Waste from industrial activities can be liquid waste, gas, and solid.
# Definition of Environmental Quality Standard
Waste can cause a negative impact if the amount or concentration in the environment has exceeded the quality standard. One effort to overcome the environmental pollution needs environmental quality standards.
Law No. 23 of 1997 regarding environmental management defining environmental quality standards as size limits or levels of living creatures, substances, energy, or components that exist or should exist and / or pollutant elements existence of which in a certain resource as environmental elements. In other words, environmental quality standards are the threshold / limit the maximum concentration of a substance or component that is allowed in the environment so as not to cause negative impacts.
Environmental quality standards include quality standards of solid waste, sea water quality standard, emission standard of air quality, effluent quality standards, and quality of raw water sources.
Raw water quality at water sources, which limits the permissible levels for a substance or pollutants found in water, but water, can still be used in accordance with the criteria. According to their uses, water sources can be divided into four groups, namely groups A, B, C and D. A group of water is water that can be used as drinking water directly without having to be processed first. Category B water is water that can be used as raw water for treatment as drinking water and household needs. Water category C is water that can be used for fisheries and livestock. Water group D is the water that can be used for agricultural purposes and can be used for urban businesses, industry and electric power.
Effluent quality standards are the allowable limits for substances or pollutants to be discharged from pollution sources to water bodies that do not result limiting water quality standard. Regulations and other provisions regarding the environment for the establishment of environmental quality standards stipulated in the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 51/MENLH/10/95. For quality standard emission stationary sources contained in the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 13/MENLH/3/1995.
Air pollution in the environment can be divided into ambient air quality standards and emission of air quality standards. Ambient air quality standard is a permissible concentration limits for substances or pollutants in the air because there is no cause disturb for living creatures and / or objects. The emission of air quality standards is the limits of permissible levels for substances or contaminants are removed from the sources of pollution to the air so it does not result in ambient air quality standard limit.
# Grouping by Type Compounds
First: Organic Waste
Organic waste has a different definition of its use can be adapted for the purpose of classification. Based on a chemical understanding of organic waste is any waste containing elements carbon (C), which includes waste from living things (such as animal and human feces, food wastes, and the remains of dead plants), paper, plastic, and rubber. However, technically, most people define organic wastes as wastes that only come from living things (naturally) and perishable nature. That is, a natural organic material but difficult to decompose / break down, such as paper, and synthetic organic materials (artificial) which is also difficult to rot / decompose, like plastic and rubber, not included in the organic waste. This applies especially when people separate the solid waste (garbage) in landfills for waste treatment.
Organic waste that comes from living things easy to rot because of the creatures living there are elements carbon (C) in the form of sugars (carbohydrates) are relatively simple chemical chain so it can be a source of nutrients for microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. Results of decomposition of organic wastes by microorganisms are mostly in the form of methane (CH 4) which also can cause environmental problems.
Second: Inorganic Waste
Based on the understanding of chemical, organic waste includes wastes that do not contain the element carbon, such as metals (eg iron from used car or furnishings, and aluminum from tin cans or household appliances), glass, and inorganic fertilizers (e.g. nitrogen-containing elements and phosphorus). These wastes do not have a carbon element which cannot be decomposed by microorganisms. As with any organic waste, the definition of organic waste that is often applied in the field generally in the form of inorganic solid waste (garbage). Is a bit different from the above technical sense, inorganic waste is defined as any waste that cannot or difficult to decompose / rot naturally by microorganisms. In this case, organic materials such as plastic, paper, and rubber are also classified as inorganic waste. The material is broken down by microorganisms is difficult because the elements of carbon to form a complex chemical chain length (polymer).
# Grouping based on the realization
First: Liquid Waste
Liquid waste is any kind of waste liquid form, the form of water and other waste materials are mixed (suspended) and dissolved in water
Liquid waste is classified into four groups:
a) The domestic wastewater (domestic Wastewater) of wastewater effluent results from households, commercial buildings, offices, and similar facilities. For example, residual water laundry detergent, soapy water, feces
b) Liquid Waste Industry (Industrial Wastewater), namely the disposal of liquid waste industry. For example, residual water washing meat, fruit, vegetables from the food processing industry and the rest of coloring fabric / material of textile industry
c) Seepage and overflow (infiltration and inflow), the liquid waste from various sources that enter the sewer wastewater through seepage into the ground or through the overflow from the surface.
d) Rain Water (storms water), the liquid waste that comes from rain water flows above ground.
Second: Solid Waste
Waste is the most environments. Solid waste is usually referred to as junk. Classification of solid waste (garbage) in technical terms there are 6 groups, namely:
- Perishable organic waste (garbage), the semi-wet solid waste, in the form of organic materials which easily rot
- Inorganic and organic garbage was rotting (rubbish), namely inorganic or organic solid waste is dry enough that difficult decomposed by microorganisms, making it difficult to decompose, such as paper, plastic, glass and metal.
- Waste ash (ashes), the solid waste in the form of ash, usually the result of arson.
- Trash dead animals (dead animal), i.e. all waste in the form of dead animals.
- Trash sweep (street sweeping), that is sweeping the streets of solid waste that contains a variety of garbage scattered on the streets
- Waste industry (industrial waste), all solid waste disposal industry
Third: Waste Gas
Type of waste gases in the air consists of diverse chemical compounds. For example, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulfur dioxide (SO x), hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonia (NH 3), Methane (CH 4), Chlorine (Cl 2). Waste gas discharged into the air typically contains particles of solid material, called particulate matter.
# Grouping Based Sources
- Domestic waste, is waste originating from residential activities
- Industrial waste, is a result of industrial process waste
- Agricultural waste derived from agriculture or plantation areas
- Mining waste, derived from mining activities
# Hazardous and Toxic Waste (B3)
Is a substance or material containing one or more compounds:
- Easy to explode (explosive)
- Oxidizing (oxidizing)
- Extremely flammable (extremely flammable)
- Highly flammable (highly flammable)
- Combustible (flammable)
- Very, very toxic (extremely toxic)
- Very toxic (highly toxic)
- Toxic (moderately toxic)
- Hazardous (harmful)
- Corrosive (corrosive)
- Be irritant (irritant)
- Dangerous for the environment (dangerous to the environment)
- Carcinogenic, may cause cancer
- Teratogenic, may cause fetal defects
- Mutagenic, can cause mutations (mutagenic). Definition and Classification of Environmental Waste